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Thick-film systems, in particular resistors on a ceramic substrate, are made using a thick-film technique in which single layers are successively deposited and then fired at temperatures up to 900°C. Below is a cross-section of a typical configuration on a ceramic substrate:
budowa schemat EN.png
Ceramic substrate: High-class Alundum ceramics (Al2O3) 96% or 99% with thermal conductivity of 25W/mK, we also use aluminum nitride (AlN 180W/mK) for special applications. Typical substrate thicknesses are 0.635mm and 1mm. 
Conductive layer: The most frequently used silver-based tracks with a content of 99% Ag, 1% Pt or with the addition of palladium Pd from 1 to a dozen or so%. We recommend soldering with a lead or lead-free alloy with a silver content of 3 or 4%. 
Resistive layer: The most commonly used ruthenium oxide, RuO, provides high stability of resistance and temperature coefficient. When using the PTC effect, paths with the addition of palladium and silver are used. 
Protective layer: This layer protects the system against external factors. Most often made of enamel and applied in the form of cermet paste. Depending on the type, fired at temperatures above 560°C
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